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L - P

Tobacco specific terms only

Laboratory Accreditation
The formal recognition of an organization's technical competency to perform specific tests or calibrations. Accredited laboratories must participate in proficiency testing on a regular basis to demonstrate their competence and maintain their accreditation. The general requirements for laboratory accreditation are contained in ISO/IEC 17025.

Lower ignition propensity cigarettes (LIP) 
Cigarettes manufactured to meet regulation which requires they pass an extinction propensity performance standard based on standard testing methods such as ASTM E2187 – 04 (“Standard Test Method for Measuring the Ignition Strength of Cigarettes”). Also referred to as Reduced Ignition Propensity or RIP.

Machine smoking
The measurement of cigarette smoke yields using a standardised regime (e.g. puff volume, duration, interval) procedures and equipment. Smoking machines may be linear in configuration or rotary; most smoking machines have the capability for smoking more than one cigarette at a time. Tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yields from modern smoking machines can be very repeatable and reproducible, unlike human smoking yields which are inherently variable. Although effective as a means of comparing yields from different cigarettes, no one standardised smoking regime can necessarily reflect human smoking behaviour or exposure.

Mainstream smoke
Is the smoke leaving the mouth end of a cigarette when puffed by a smoker or smoking machine.

Massachusetts intense smoking regime
A machine smoking regime developed by the Department of Heath of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to measure and rank cigarette emissions under controlled conditions. It uses 45cm3 puff volume, 2s puff duration, 30s puff interval and with 50% blocking of the filter ventilation.

Method validation
Is the process used to confirm that an analytical procedure employed for a specific test is suitable for its intended use. It is an integral part of good analytical practice. Results from a method validation process can be used to judge the quality, reliability and consistency of analytical results. A validation procedure usually investigates the following parameters: linearity of analytical response, detection and quantification limits, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and accuracy.

Metabolite
A biological breakdown product of an ingested substance. For example, the body metabolises nicotine into cotinine and other substances, thereby making cotinine one of the metabolites of nicotine.

Migration chemicals
Chemicals that may migrate between packaging materials and finished tobacco products.

Morbidity
The incidence of a particular disease in a population.

Mouth-level exposure
An estimate of the amount of smoke that enters a smokers mouth. When estimated by filter analysis it can also be referred to as human smoker yield, mouth level exposure, tar in use, or yield in use.

Mouth spill
The amount of smoke that is spilt from the mouth and not inhaled by the smoker after a puff on a cigarette.

NCI
The National Cancer Institute is the United States government's principal agency for cancer research and training.

NFDPM
The scientific acronym for ‘tar’. It stands for Nicotine-Free, Dry Particulate Matter, and was formerly known as PMWNF (particulate matter, water nicotine free). NFDPM yields from cigarettes are measured using a smoking machine and are calculated by subtracting the nicotine and water yields of a set of cigarettes from the mass of particulate matter (Total Particulate Matter or TPM) trapped by a Cambridge Filter Pad during the smoke analysis. NFDPM yield is normally expressed as milligrams per cigarette, and its magnitude is highly dependent upon the smoking regime used.

Nicotine
The major natural alkaloid in tobacco. The Nicotine yield in cigarette smoke is often expressed as milligrams of nicotine per cigarette as quantified by machine smoking experiments – see, for example, ISO Smoking Regime.

Nitric oxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
These are toxic gases known to be present in smoke. They are measured both as a volume concentration (parts per million) and total yield (ug/cig). Nitric oxide is a specific chemical, but oxides of nitrogen is a collective term covering a number of species including nitric oxide.

Particulate phase
Cigarette smoke is a dynamic mixture of particles and gases. During smoke analysis on a smoking machine the smoke passes through a Cambridge Filter Pad; the material trapped by the pad is termed the particulate phase, and smoke constituents trapped on the pad are referred to as particulate phase compounds. In contrast, the mixture of gases and vapours passing through the pad are collectively referred to as the vapour phase of smoke.

Permeability
The flow of air through cigarette paper, plug wrap (wrapping material for filter tow) or tipping paper. Expressed in CORESTA units (CU) defined as the flow (cm3 min-1) passing through a 1 cm2 sample of test material at an applied pressure of 1.00 kPa.  Permeability can come from natural porosity or perforation.

Plant protection agents
Refers to the residual agrochemicals that may remain on tobacco following application during the growing and storage of tobacco.

PREP
Potential reduced-exposure product (PREP), a term created by the US Institute of Medicine in ‘Clearing the Smoke: assessing the science base for tobacco harm reduction’.  A PREP can be defined as a product that (1) results in the substantial reduction in exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and (2) can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects.

Pressure drop
ISO standard 6565:2002 defines the static pressure drop as the static pressure difference across the cigarette when it is traversed by an air flow under steady conditions in which the measured volumetric flow, under standard conditions, at the output end is 17.5ml/s.

Product characteristics
Is a broad term referring to the physical and chemical features of a product that may influence its performance and use by consumers (smokers).

Puff duration
The time during which reduced pressure is applied to the mouth end of a cigarette during the smoking process.

Puff frequency
The number of puffs taken in a given period of time under a standarised smoking regime.

Puff interval
The time between puffs.

Puff number
The number of puffs taken when a cigarette is machine smoked to a specified butt length.

Puff profile
The temporal distribution of flow or applied pressure through the cigarette during puffing. It describes the shape of the puff taken either by a smoking machine or the human smoker.

Puff volume
The volume of smoke leaving the mouth end of a cigarette during a puff.

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