Tobacco specific terms only
A material made from tobacco dust that has been reformed into a sheet, cut and incorporated into the cigarette as part of the tobacco blend. Some cigars or cigarillos use this material in sheet form as an outer wrapper.
Reduced toxicant prototype (RTP)
A product that produces lower amounts of specific tobacco smoke toxicants per unit of tar (compared to a reference product) when measured under machine smoking conditions. A Reduced Toxicant Prototype is a prototype product developed with the aim that , following further extensive testing in human use, it might be accepted in the future as being a PREP.
The amount of smoke or its constituents retained in the mouth and respiratory tract. It is the difference between the amount of smoke inhaled and exhaled. It is estimated by combining Filter Analysis and chemical analysis of the exhaled smoke.
Risk is an estimate of the probability that harm will occur in a population, usually estimated through epidemiological studies. It is typically difficult to determine the risk to an individual.
The smoke which leaves the tip of a cigarette during the smoking process. This is a major contributor to ETS.
An individual chemical present in cigarette smoke.
A set of defined puffing parameters (e.g. puff volume, puff duration and puff frequency) adopted for smoking cigarettes by machine.
A mechanical device on which cigarettes are smoked under standardised smoking conditions to a prescribed butt length.
Smokeless Tobacco Products
Non combustible tobacco products, for example oral tobacco products such as snus.
A sub-category of oral smokeless tobacco products, traditionally used in Scandinavia, which are manufactured using a tobacco heat-treatment process. The final moisture content is typically higher than 40%, although semi-dry products (less than 40% moisture) are also available. The products are usually placed between upper lip and gum and do not require expectoration during use. Products are available in both loose and in individually portioned sachets.
A process used to dry harvested tobacco, mainly used with Oriental styles of tobacco. Tobacco is hung on racks in direct sunlight during curing.
The common term for the particulate phase of smoke as trapped and measured on a smoking machine using a Cambridge filter pad; also referred to as NFDPM (Nicotine-Free, Dry Particulate Matter). Tar yields from cigarettes are calculated by subtracting the nicotine and water yields of a set of cigarettes from the mass of particulate matter (Total Particulate Matter or TPM) trapped by on the Cambridge Filter Pad. Tar yield is normally expressed as milligrams per cigarette, and its magnitude is highly dependent upon the smoking regime used.
An estimate of the amount of smoke taken into the mouth by a smoker. When estimated by filter analysis it can also be referred to as human smoker yield, mouth level exposure, or yield in use.
Substances found in the tobacco plant material, for example, Nicotine.
A sub-division of a tobacco type based on the position of the leaf on the stalk of the tobacco plant the ripeness, colour, texture, and quality of the leaf.
Tobacco harm reduction
The term “tobacco harm reduction” does not have a single meaning that is accepted by all. The US Institute of Medicine defines it as “minimising harms and decreasing total morbidity and mortality without completely eliminating tobacco and nicotine use.” [See Stratton K, Shetty P., Wallace R., Bondurant S., editors. Clearing the smoke: assessing the science base for tobacco harm reduction, Washington (DC), National Academy Press, 2001].
A subdivision of tobacco based mainly on the method of curing, but also on agricultural practices, agronomy and strain of plant. There are a number of predominant tobacco types, each with distinctive smoking characteristics, e.g. Air-cured, Fire-cured, Flue-cured and Sun-cured.
Tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA)
Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines are chemical compounds found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Common examples are 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N’-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and N’-nitrosoanabasine (NAB).
Total particulate matter (TPM)
Total particulate matter is the weight of smoke aerosol collected on a Cambridge filter pad during machine smoking. It differs from Tar and NFDPM, both of which refer to TPM less water and nicotine.
A substance (e.g. from tobacco or its smoke) that is harmful or potentially harmful to the body.
A poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms.
“Uptake” refers to the amount of smoke constituent from the smoker’s intake which is retained in the mouth and respiratory tract, i.e. the difference between intake and the amount exhaled over the subsequent one, two or three exhalations. Uptake is not necessarily the amount absorbed into the body compartments, although for many smoke constituents, e.g. nicotine, uptake is practically identical with the amount absorbed (dose). Exceptions can be particle-bound smoke constituents, which are deposited in the respiratory tract for long time periods and not absorbed. The units are mass of smoke constituent per puff or per cigarette.