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Influence of cigarette construction on combustion

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A recent cross-industry study of smoke yields from cigarettes on sale in the UK highlighted possible variation in yields of smoke constituents associated with cigarette construction[1].

This study suggested tobacco blend style influenced nitrogen-containing smoke constituents. It also identified differences in the yields of volatile, gaseous and alkyl phenol compounds between unfiltered and filter tipped cigarettes.

We extended this work by examining the effects of cigarette components and construction parameters on smoke chemistry and related smoke properties[2-6], which also include in vitro smoke genotoxic activity and smoke aerosol properties.

The data reported that the mainstream yields of all Hoffmann analytes were found to be related to the total volume of air drawn through the cigarette[4]. Cigarette circumference was found to have little impact on the yields of smoke constituents - other than for formaldehyde.

Tobacco blend style was found to have an important effect on smoke constituent yields.
Hoffmann analyte yields from cigarettes containing different tobacco blends[5] - coupled with detailed tobacco chemistry measurements - identified relationships between blend components and smoke constituents. These data provide an insight into the tobacco precursors of some smoke constituents.

Examination of Hoffmann analyte yields at ISO and more intense smoking regimes[6] showed that a similar relationship existed between analyte yields and design factors at ISO and intense smoking regimes. It also showed that empirical models could be built using data from both ISO and intense regimes.

Statistical analysis of toxicant yields using multiple regression techniques provided the basis of predicting toxicant yields from a number of cigarette design parameters[7].

Blend composition, ISO and intense smoking regimes were included in models which successfully predicted the yields of most Hoffmann analytes.

We examined the addition of organic potassium salts to cigarettes[8]. We found increasing the salt addition significantly modified the burning of cigarettes, reducing some mainstream smoke constituents and also reducing the burning temperature and increasing the pressure drop. However, when in vitro genotoxicity was examined on the smoke condensates from these burn-modifying cigarettes using micronucleus (MN) tests, elevated chromosomal damage was observed.


  1. Gregg, E., Hill, C., Hollywood, M., Kearney, M., McLaughlin, D., McAdam, K., Williams, M., Purkis, S. (2004). The UK smoke constituents testing study. Summary of results and comparison with other studies. Beiträge zur Tabakforschung International. 21 (2): 117-138.
  2. Kalirai, K., Whittle, J., Cowin, R., Clack, A., Langford, R., Massey, E. D. (2005). The effect of cigarette design variables on assays of interest to the tobacco industry: 4) In-vitro genotoxic activity of mainstream cigarette smoke. Oral presentation made at the CORESTA Joint Meeting of the Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, September 4-8. Presentation: The effect of cigarette design... Opens new window
  3. Mcaughey, J., McGrath, C., Sheppard, J., Case, P. D. (2005). The effect of cigarette design variables on assays of interest to the tobacco industry: 5) Smoke aerosol properties. Oral presentation made at the CORESTA Joint Meeting of the Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, September 4-8. Presentation: the effect of cigarette design... Opens new window
  4. Case, P. D., Baker, R. R., Branton, P. J., Cashmore, M., Winter, D., Greig, C. C., Wan, P. W. H., Kalirai, K., Timms, N., Warren, N. D., Sheppard, J., Prasad, K., McAughey, J. (2005). The effect of cigarette design variables on assays of interest to the tobacco industry: 1) Experimental design and some initial findings on Hoffmann analyte yields. Oral presentation made at the CORESTA Joint Meeting of the Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, September 4-8. Presentation: The effect of cigarette design... Opens new window
  5. Winter, D., Coleman, M., Warren, N. (2005). The effect of cigarette design variables on assays of interest to the tobacco industry: 3) Tobacco blend styles. Oral presentation made at the CORESTA Joint Meeting of the Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, September 4-8. Presentation: The effect of cigarette design... Opens new window
  6. Cashmore, M., Branton, P. (2005). The effect of cigarette design variables on assays of interest to the tobacco industry: 6) Intense smoking regimes. Oral presentation made at the CORESTA Joint Meeting of the Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, September 4-8. Presentation: The effect of cigarette design... Opens new window
  7. Sheppard, J., Warren, N., Case, P. D. (2005). The effect of cigarette design variables on assays of interest to the tobacco industry: 2) Prediction of Hoffmann analytes using two different modelling methods. Oral presentation made at the CORESTA Joint Meeting of the Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, September 4-8.Presentation: The effect of cigarette design... Opens new window
  8. Liu, C., Parry, A. (2003). Potassium Organic Salts as Burn Additives in Cigarettes. Beiträge zur Tabakforschung International. 20 (5): 341-347.
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