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Influence of additives and ingredients

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We have published a series of studies examining the influence of 482 tobacco ingredients on cigarette smoke chemistry and toxicology[1-6]. The overall outcome of this programme of research was the finding that tobacco ingredients - at levels typically used in tobacco products - have very limited influence on smoke chemistry.

It also showed that their inclusion had no additional effect on cigarette smoke condensate bioassays. These findings generally agree with other studies in the literature [7-9].

One area where a relationship between ingredient use and analyte level was found was where sugars and polysaccharides materials were associated with increased formaldehyde yields. This relationship was further investigated[10,11], which quantified the extent of the influence of sugars on formaldehyde yields.

Below is a summary representation of the yields of smoke constituents from 9 test cigarettes (C1 to C9) as percentage of yields from control cigarette C1. The yields were obtained under the standard ISO smoking regime[10].

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  1. Baker, R. R., Bishop, L. J. (2004). The pyrolysis of tobacco ingredients. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 71 (1): 223-311. Abstract: The pyrolysis of tobacco ingredients Opens new window...
  2. Baker, R. R., Bishop, L. J. (2005). The pyrolysis of non-volatile tobacco ingredients using a system that simulates cigarette combustion conditions. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 74 (1-2): 145-170. Abstract: The pyrolysis of non-volatile... Opens new window
  3. Baker, R. R., Coburn, S., Liu, C., Tetteh, J. (2005). Pyrolysis of saccharide tobacco ingredients: A TGA-FTIR investigation. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 74 (1-2): 171-180. Abstract: Pyrolysis of saccharide tobacco...  Opens new window
  4. Baker, R. R., Da Silva, J. R. P., Smith, G. (2004). The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part I: Flavourings and additives. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 42: S3-S37. Abstract: The effect of tobacco...  Opens new window
  5. Baker R. R., Da Silva, J. R. P., Smith, G. (2004). The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part II: Casing ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 42: S39-S52. Abstract: The effect of tobacco ingredients... Opens new window
  6. Baker, R. R., Massey, E. D., Smith, G. (2004). An overview of the effects of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry and toxicity. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 42: S53-S83. Abstract: An overview of the...  Opens new window
  7. Carmines, E.L. 2002. Evaluation of the potential effects of ingredients added to cigarettes. Part 1: cigarette design, testing approach, and review of results. Food and Chem. Toxicol. 40: 77-91.
  8. Carmines, E.L., Lemus, R., Gaworski, C.L. 2005. Toxicologic evaluation of licorice extract as a cigarette ingredient. Food and Chem. Toxicol. 43: 1303-1322.
  9. Carmines, E.L., Gaworski, C.L. 2005 Toxicologic evaluation of glycerine as a cigarette ingredient. Food and Chem. Toxicol. 43: 1521-1539.
  10. Baker, R. R. (1987). Keynote review: Some burning problems in tobacco science. Proceedings of The International Conference on the Physical and Chemical Processes Occurring in a Burning Cigarette, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA, April 26-29, 1987.
  11. Baker, R. R., Coburn, S., Liu, C. (2006). The pyrolytic formation of formaldehyde from sugars and tobacco. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 77 (1): 12-21. Abstract: The pyrolytic formation...  Opens new window
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