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Aqueous extract

10122_aqueousextract
Impinger system used to generate and collect cigarette smoke aqueous extracts

Generation of aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke enables the researcher to investigate effects of water soluble particulate and gas phase components of cigarette smoke. These extracts have been studied and have been shown to contain certain pro-oxidant compounds, including hydroxyl, superoxide and semiqunone radicals that have the potential to increase the cellular production of reactive oxidant species [1-3].

It has been suggested that these water-soluble components of cigarette smoke may be present in the bloodstream of smokers, however these findings have yet to be validated.

Aqueous extracts are often applied to in vitro disease models, in particular models of cardiovascular disease, where water-soluble components of cigarette smoke are thought to have effects.

In brief, extracts are generated by bubbling  mainstream smoke into a specific volume of cell culture medium or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with the help of a constant vacuum) [4]. Both the particulate and gas phase water-soluble chemicals are trapped in the medium.  Particulates can be removed by filtering the solution prior to use and can be stored at -20°C for up to 1 month.


  1. Nakayama, T., Kodama, M., Nagata, C. (1984). Generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical from cigarette smoke. Gann. 75:95–8.
  2. Zang, L.Y., Stone, K., Pryor, W.A. (1995). Detection of free radicals in aqueous extracts of cigarette tar by electron spin resonance. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 19: 161–167.
  3. Pryor, W.A., Stone, K., Zang, L.Y., Bermudez, E. (1998). Fractionation of aqueous cigarette tar extracts: fractions that contain the tar radical cause DNA damage. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 11: 441–448.
  4. Nakayama, T., Kaneko, M., Kodama, M., Nagata, C. (1985). Cigarette smoke induces DNA singe strand breaks in human cells. Nature. 314: 462–464.
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